The World Risk Report 2012 ranked Tonga, a country of 176 islands and four island groups, second only to Vanuatu in terms of vulnerability to natural disasters. Natural disasters such as tropical cyclones and storm surges have been inflicting significant losses on Tonga’s economy while also depleting its cash reserves.
At project appraisal in 2007, 35% of Samoa’s population worked overseas and remittances constituted 17% of the gross national income. Because of this, the government deemed it important to introduce the use of information and communication technology (ICT) at secondary education level.
Viet Nam’s rapid economic growth during 2000–2010 resulted in structural changes that transformed the country from being heavily dependent on agriculture to becoming more modern and industrialized. These changes in turn led to an increasing demand for a more educated and highly skilled workforce that meets the requirements of a rapidly growing economy.
Just 2−4 years after it was severely hit by the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the Indonesian economy began to steadily recover. Real gross domestic product growth rose from 0.8% in 1998 to 2%–3% during 2000–2002 and reached 5.5% in 2006. Wide−ranging finance sector reforms accounted for much of this recovery.
In December 2006, the Law on Education for Mongolia was amended to extend the education system from 11 to 12 years, and lower the school-entry age from 7 to 6 years in line with international standards. This fundamental change, effective from school year (SY) 2008/09, required updating the curricula, textbooks, teaching–learning materials, and teachers’ skills and knowledge.