Taking a cautious approach to address gender-based violence (GBV), which is a non-traditional area for Asian Development Bank (ADB) assistance, ADB approved a grant of $750,000 from the Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction (JFPR) for a pilot project on Establishing Women and Children Service Centers (WCSCs) in Nepal in July 2009.
Despite improvements in rural infrastructure, the share of Bangladesh’s rural population with access to all-weather roads and paved rural roads was lower than that of other South Asian countries at project appraisal. Compared with 60% in India and 61% in Pakistan, only 37% of the country’s rural population had access to all-weather roads.
During project preparation, Bangladesh was one of the few countries that achieved gender parity up to secondary level. Net enrollment rates improved from 87.2% in 2005 to 93.9% in 2009. However, despite significant progress, primary education remained inadequate to ensure quality primary education for all children on a sustainable basis.
The Philippine Development Plan (PDP), 2011–2016 called for real gross domestic product (GDP) to grow by an average of 7%–8% per year, investment ratios to reach 22% by 2016, and a corresponding 17% reduction in extreme poverty. Recognizing the role played by investment in meeting the broader goals of inclusive economic growth and poverty reduction, the PDP targeted public infrastructure spend